Detroit Assembly (also known as Detroit Cadillac or Clark Street Assembly) was a General Motors automobile factory in Detroit, Michigan. Originally opened as Cadillac Fleetwood Assembly in 1921, the factory produced Cadillacs and closed on December 23, 1987, whereupon production of Cadillac's D-bodies moved to Arlington Assembly in Texas. From 1984 to 1987, the plant also built the Oldsmobile 88 and Custom Cruiser, and the Chevrolet Caprice and Impala.
The site of the plant was redeveloped into the 88-acre Clark Street Technology Park in 1997 by General Motors and three other partners.
GENERAL MOTORS OF CANADA [McKinnon Industries Limited]
ST. CATHARINE'S, ONTARIO HISTORY
1878: McKinnon and Mitchell Hardware was formed on St. Paul Street making saddlery and wagon hardware.
1888: L. B. McKinnon assumed control under the name McKinnon Dash and Hardware Co.
1900: The plant moved to
1901: A malleable foundry was added to the plant.
1905: A drop forge shop was erected and manufacture of chain began.
1914: Outbreak of war - saddlery and hardware supplied to Canadian, British and French armies.
1916: Shell and fuse making began in a three-storey building erected at the Axle Plant.
1917: Reorganised under the name "McKinnon Industries Limited".
1918: Chain business sold and McKinnon entered the automobile field, producing radiators and pioneering production of differential and transmission gears in Canada.
1923: L. E. McKinnon died leaving his estate to be sold.
1925: Messrs. Gideon Grant and Neil Sinclair purchased the company, the new name to be The McKinnon Industries Limited and Mr. B. W. Burtsell became President. Manufacture of rear axles progressed vigorously.
1929: The radiator business was sold to make room for the gear division. On March 29 the company became a subsidiary of General Motors Corporation with Mr. H. J. Carmichael as President and General Manager.
1930: Erection of the Delco building on the east side of Ontario Street and an expansion program began with the manufacture of starting motors, generators, shock absorbers, steering gears and wheel cylinders.
1932: Further expansion to manufacture fractional horsepower motors for washing machines, refrigerators and truck and car transmissions.
1936: W. A. Wecker, became Vice President and General Manager succeeding H. J. Carmichael who was appointed Vice President and General Manager of General Motors of Canada in Oshawa. A Grey Iron foundry was installed to make engine cylinder heads, blocks and brake drums.
1939: World War II - The government called upon McKinnons to produce army 4 wheel drive trucks, percussion fuses, dynamotors, for 2-way radios, fire control mechanism, gyro gun sight motors, torpedo drives, elevating units for 3.7 anti-aircraft guns. Floorspace was doubled.
1943: T. J. Cook was McKinnon President and General Manager succeeding W. A. Wecker who was appointed to President and General Manager of General Motors of Canada, Oshawa.
1944: The manufacturing of anti-friction ball and roller bearings was started.
1945: The Bearing Division was expanded to make parts for agricultural and general machinery industries.
1948: The manufacturing of fuel pumps for Canadian car manufacturers began.
1950: 141 acres of land was acquired to build a new foundry.
1952: The foundry was officially opened having the largest and most modern malleable and grey iron foundry in the British Commonwealth. [CLOSED END OF 1995]
1953: Contract to build an Engine Plant at this site was released on March 31st. Mr. T. J. Cook retired and on April 1st E. H. Walker was appointed President and General Manager. The assembly of radios for cars and trucks was started.
1954: V-8 engines for Chevrolet, Pontiac, and Oldsmobile Rocket engines were made and assembled in the newly completed Engine Plant.
1957: On April 1st E. J. Barbeau was named President and General Manager of The McKinnon Industries Limited succeeding E. H. Walker who was appointed President and General Manager of General Motors of Canada, Oshawa, succeeding W. A. Wecker who retired.
1963: McKinnons acquired the Windsor Engine Plant. Inline 6 cylinder production was transferred to St. Catharine's with local transmission production transferred to Windsor. Commercial fractional horsepower motors were transferred to G.M. Diesel, London, Ontario.
1964: As a result of the General Motors deproliferation program and to subsequent approval of the Canada-U.S. Trade Agreement, the 1967 following changes occurred in the product program.
· · 1964: - Radio to Frigidaire, Toronto; Horn to Frigidaire, Toronto; Shock Absorber to Frigidaire, Toronto
1965: - Deletion of Rear Axle Assembly for Buick and Oldsmobile 'B' Car and 1-1/2 Ton Truck; Deletion of Front and Rear Brake Assembly for Buick and Oldsmobile 'B' Car; Front and Rear Brake Drum Assembly for 1-1/2 and 2 Ton Truck.
1966 - Propshaft to Frigidaire; Deletion of Ignition Coil, Voltage Regulator, Distributor, Master Cylinder, and Oldsmobile-Buick Engine Assembly.
1967 - Deletion of Ball and Roller Bearing, Power Steering, Manual Steering.
1965: Administration Building on Glendale Avenue was finished.
1966: Engine Plant tooled for '327' CID VS Engines.
1967: Engine Plant tooled for '307' CID VS Engines (dropped 6 cylinder)
1968: V-8 capacity increased to 2,400 Engines/Day
1969: Engine Plant tooled for '350' CID VS 2/4 Barrel (dropped '283'). McKinnon Industries changed from subsidiary status to become General Motors of Canada Limited, St. Catharine's.E. J. Barbeau was transferred to G.M. Oshawa as Director of Manufacturing Operations. Grosvenor Swift named Area Plant Manager St. Catharines.
1970: Engine tooled for 100% '350' CID VS (dropped '307, 327')
1971: V-8 Engine capacity increased to 2,600 Engines/Day.
1972: Rear Axle capacity increased from 2,400/Day to 2,800/Day with the inclusion of the 6-1/2" 'H' Car Vega Rear Axle. Grosvenor Swift retired. Ivan S. Kaye named Plant Manager, General Motors of Canada Limited, St. Catharines.
1973: Rear Axle capacity increased to 3,200/Day.
1974: 7-½ " 'H' Car and 7-½" 'X' Car Axle production added.
1975: Engine Plant began producing '350' and '305' CID VS production with full flexibility.
1978: Rear Axle capacity increased to 3,600/Day. 8-½" G-Van Rear Axles added. Approved to manufacture '267' Cu. In. V-8 at 1,400/Day. Ivan S. Kaye retired. Ron Migus named Manager - St. Catharine's Plants.
1979: Welland Avenue Plant purchased from Columbus McKinnon. Corporation approval for manufacture of THM125C Differential Carrier and Output Shaft for 1981 Model Year at 4,000/Day. Corporation approval to manufacture V6 60 2.8L Engines at 1,600/Day and V-8 4.4 & 5.0 Litre ('267' and '305' CID) Engines for 1982. Corporate approval to convert Starting Motor production from 10MT to 5MT at 5,000/Day capacity.
1980: Full production of Delcotrons and Starting Motors at the Welland Avenue Plant. Capacity increase on '267' CID Engines from 1,400 - 1,800/Day. Corporate approval to manufacture THM440T4 Final Drive Assembly and Output Shaft at 10,000/Day for 1983 Model Year. Corporate approval to manufacture 1983-½ 'B-C' Drive Axle Shaft Forgings at 4,250/Day (revised to 'C' Car only at 2,400/Day).
1981: Corporate approval to manufacture 1983-1/2 'B-C' Independent Rear Suspension at 5,000/Day (revised to 'C' Car only at 2,400/Day). Corporate approval to manufacture 1983 Commercial C-10, G-10-20 Truck Front Suspension at 2,700/Day (revised to 1,600/Day C-10 only). Corporate approval to make all Oldsmobile forgings. Corporate approval to provide R.W.D. V6 600 engine flexibility. Mr. F. Allan Smith is replaced as President & General Manager of G.M. of Canada by James Rinehart on January 5, 1981. Mr. Smith becomes an Executive Vice-President in charge of finance.1982 Donald E. Hackworth becomes President & General Manager of General Motors of Canada Limited on January 1, 1982 replacing James R. Rinehart who resigned. Delcotron and Starting Motor production was transferred from Welland Avenue to U.S.A. GM Fanuc Robotics Corporation formed.
1983: Corporate approval of C.V.T. Differential Carrier assembly. NUMMI, a joint venture with Toyota formed. General Motors 75th Anniversary
1984: Donald E. Hackworth becomes General Manager of Buick on January 10th , 1984 and John F. Smith Jr. becomes President & General Manager G.M. of Canada Limited. Mr. Smith was formerly Director of Worldwide Product Planning. North American Passenger Car Operations reorganized into CPC-BOC. October 18th General Motors acquires Electronic Data Systems (EDS). Corporate approval to change 2.8L V6 to TBI for SIT truck and MPFI for passenger cars with aluminum heads. Automotive Component Group (ACG) Divisions established strategic business units by product line.
1985: Corporate approval to make GM-10 Front & Rear Disc Brakes. Corporate approval to make 'C/H' Car leading trailing brakes.Corporate approval to make 5.7 Litre V-8 truck engines. General Motors forms Saturn Corporation in January. December 31 General Motors acquires Hughes Aircraft Company.
1986: Corporate approval to make 8-1/2" 'C/K' Rear Axles for trucks at 1,500/Day. George A. Peapples becomes President & General Manager of General Motors of Canada Limited February 3, 1986 replacing John F. Smith Jr. who becomes Executive Vice President - Operations & Engineering General Motors Europe - Passenger Cars. Manufacture of ground and cast aluminum pistons set up in the Welland Avenue Plant. Ground pistons transferred from Engine Plant. Cast pistons - completely new installation. General Motors acquires Group Lotus PLC. GM/Volvo joint venture formed to market heavy-duty trucks. GM of Canada/Suzuki joint venture formed.
1987: Corporate approval to make 3.1 Litre V-6 Engines. Corporate approval to make F-7 Final Drive & Output Shaft. Corporate approval to make GM-10 Rear Brakes & Front Rotors. Robert C. Stempel replaces F. James McDonald as Corporation President.
1988: Corporate approval to make 3.4 Litre V-6 Engine. Corporate approval to convert 440 transmission to F-31 design.
1989: Built last V-6 2.8 Litre Engine. Began building V-6 3.1 Litre APV and W-Car (Buick Regal, Chevrolet Lumina) Engine. The St. Catharine's Plants are realigned into Strategic Business Units (SBU's) as part of the Automotive Components Group (ACG). The St. Catharine's Plants continue to report through the GM of Canada operating structure, but work closely with the planning and operational groups of the SBU's who have engineering and sourcing responsibility for the St. Catherine's factories' products. St. Catharine's Plants are affected as follows:
· · Foundry aligned to Central Foundry Division - Engine SBU Engine Plant reports to CPC.
Axle Plant aligned to Saginaw Division - Final Drive and Forge
Hydra-matic Division - Automatic Transmission
Delco Moraine - Wheel Brake
A.C. Rochester - Spark Plug
1990: Start of Production - V-6 3.4 Litre DOHC Engine. The Axle Plant is officially renamed to Components Plant.
Buick City was a massive automobile manufacturing complex in the northwest of Flint, Michigan. Elements of the 235 acre (951,000 m²) complex dated from 1904, but it became known as Buick City in 1984. The complex was closed on June 29, 1999 and demolished in March 2002. It was the last Buick plant in Flint, long a center of automobile production. The final cars built at Buick City were the Pontiac Bonneville and the Buick LeSabre.
The plant originated with Buick before the formation of General Motors. Other elements were built by early manufacturers and suppliers like Fisher Body. GM employment in the city peaked in 1978 at 77,000, with Buick City workers reaching a high of 28,000 in the 1980s.
The Buick City concept represented a failed attempt by General Motors to ramp up production volume in response to Japanese manufacturers. However, the experiment wasn't without its successes: The 1989 Buick LeSabre built in Buick City was ranked the top car in the J.D. Power and Associates rankings for that year; it was the first American built car to show up on the list. In 1999, the year the plant was closed, Buick City won the Platinum Award. As of 2006, it was the only General Motors plant given this award.
On July 31, 2007 it was reported that a major shipping company wants to turn the old Buick City site into a shipping mecca. The company would utilize I-75, I-69, I-475, and the railroad. The shipping center could bring 600 new jobs and spur multiple small businesses around the center.
Chevrolet Ave. Ca. 1913.
Comprising the Motor Div. (engine assembly and engine parts plants) and the Pressed Metal Div. (parts plants). Includes the pre-World War II Chevrolet Assembly (Plant 2) and Fisher Body #2 plants. (renamed Chevy Plant 2A).
In 1984, due to smaller sales of four-cylinder engines, the Chevrolet Flint Motor Plant (Plant 4) closed-- after millions of dollars in improvements circa 1980. Also in this year, the newly created Chevrolet-Pontiac-Canada Group briefly took over Chevrolet Mfg. from Chevrolet Motor Div., but soon the newly formed Fisher Guide Div. acquired the complex. In about 1987, "Chevy in the Hole" was taken over by AC Spark Plug and became AC Spark Plug Flint West. In 1988, it became AC Rochester Flint West, and in 1994, AC Delco Systems Flint West. In early 1995, it was renamed Delphi Flint West.
Also circa 1995, "Chevy in the Hole" began to slowly disappear. Among the first plants to go were the truck garage, Plant 5 (former engine parts), and administration building. This process continued until 2004, when Plant 4 (which had reopened some years after it initially closed in 1984) shut down and was demolished. Plant 4's last products were generators and fuel filters.
South Gate Assembly was a General Motors automobile plant located in the Los Angeles suburb of South Gate, California. It opened in 1936 to build B-O-P (Buick-Olds-Pontiac) cars for sale on the west coast. Managed by the Pontiac division, it was the first GM facility west of the Mississippi River. It was the first GM plant to build multiple car lines, resulting from a Depression-spawned move to cut production costs by sharing components and manufacturing. South Gate was the second of several B-O-P "branch" assembly plants (the first being the Buick-operated Linden plant), part of GM's strategy to have production facilities in as many places as possible. These "branch" plants would build cars for distribution to a specific region.
It added production of the Pontiac Tempest, Oldsmobile F-85, and Buick Special alongside the fullsize cars for 1961. When the compacts became intermediates for 1964 their production ceased at South Gate, and Chevrolet fullsize production was added.
The plant was converted from full-size car production to the subcompact H-body cars for 1975. This arrangement was short-lived, and GM returned the factory to building full-size Chevrolet, Olds, and Buick B-body vehicles for 1977. The Olds and Buick were dropped and the Cadillac DeVille added for 1979. However, due to decreasing sales of the Chevrolet B-body cars, it was idled in March 1980. It was then retooled once again for subcompacts, building the 1982 Chevrolet Cavalier and Cadillac Cimarron. Slow sales resulted in the closure of the plant, with production ending on March 23, 1982.
Mr. L.E. McKinnon died in 1923, and a new company named the McKinnon Industries was formed in 1925, under the direction of B. W. Burtsell. During the period of readjustment a useful adjunct was acquired: the Canadian interests of J.H. Williams Co.-wrenches, hammers and small tools. Moreover, the automotive lines were expanded to the point where General Motors Corporation, Detroit, purchased all the McKinnon interests--on March 29, 1929.
The new president and general manager of the company was H. J. Carmichael, who started working for McKinnon's as a patternmaker in 1912.
As a General Motors subsidiary, the McKinnon operation continued to expand rapidly. A new building was erected for the manufacture of DELCO products: automotive starting motors and generators, ignition coils, shock absorbers, steering gears, voltage regulators, spark plugs and distributors, and in 1932 yet another division was opened to produce fractional h.p. motors for washing machines and refrigerators.
In 1936 H.J. Carmichael was appointed vice-president and general manager of General Motors of Canada at Oshawa, and W.A. Wecker, a graduate of Carnegie Tech., with a background of automotive experience, became vice-president and general manager of McKinnon's. The hardware business was sold, a number of obsolete buildings were wrecked and replaced with completely modern plant. The malleable foundry was remodelled and a grey iron section added, and all efforts were directed to the production of automotive products.
When war was declared in 1939 McKinnon's was in a most favourable position, and able to place its entire production facilities at the disposal of the Canadian, Government and, indeed, the company's World War II record was one of considerable achievement.
The huge mechanical transport program (4 x 4 and 2 x 4 army trucks) required thousands of component parts such as specially designed front and rear axles., transfer cases and transmission as well as all automotive electrical components. The company was a huge producer of percussion fuses, fire-control mechanism, traversing and elevating units for 3.7 anti-aircraft guns, dynamotors for two-way radio transmission, handcrank generators, gyro gun sight motors, rear releases for machine guns and even torpedo drives. The plant for manufacture of these additional products necessitated expansion which practically doubled existing floor space. The number of employees increased from 1,800 in 1919 to 4,500 in 1943.
On January 1st, 1942, W.A. Wecker was appointed president and general manager of General Motors of Canada Limited, succeeding H.J. Carmichael, who assumed control of all manufacturing for the Canadian Government, and T.J. Cook, formerly super-intendent of the Delco Division and latterly factory manager, became the president and general manager of McKinnon Industries.
In 1944, alarmed at the shortage of anti-friction bearings in Cariada, the Canadian Government asked McKinnon to enter the field. With assistance from the New Departure and Hyatt divisions in U.S.A. the company began an operation that expanded until it now produces both ball and roller bearings for the Canadian automotive, agricultural, and general machinery industries.
McKinnon management foresaw the tremenclous post-war demand for cars and trucks in Canada and took steps to meet it when, in 1945, practically every division was reorganized.
In 1948, as the direct result of the world shortage of U.S. dollars the company began the manufacture of fuel pumps and EATON two-speed axles for the Canadian automotive and truck industries.
Production facilities were expanded again in 1949, and in 1950 it was established that no more buildings could be erected where, on the forty-acre manufacturing site, a million square feet of floor space was already occupied, 140 acres of land in Grantham Township on the east bank of the Welland Ship Canal were purchased, and a new Foundry, 350,000 square feet in extent, was erected.
On April 1, 1953, E.H. Walker was appointed president and general manager, succeeding T.J. Cook, who retired on that date.
In 1953, McKinnon began the manufacture of G.M. car and truck radios. Further expansion in 1954 necessitated the erection of a350,000 sq. ft. building next to the foundryto house the new V-8 Engine Division, where Chevrolet and Pontiac V-8 engines are machined and assembled, and the Oldsmobile V-8 enfine assembled.
In 1956 two new products were added to the McKinnon list of automobile parts: AC oil filters, and automotive horns.
On April 1, 1957, E.H. Walker was elected president and appointed general manager, of General Motors of Canada, Limited,Oshawa, succeeding W.A. Wecker who retired on that date. E.J. Batheau was elected president and general manager of the McKinnon Industries, Limited. Plant website:http://www.gmpowertrain.ca/Register for 2010 Show & Shine:http://www.gmpowertrain.ca/reg_form.html
Ray White, Toronto ON
1973 LeMans 454
Built March 9, 1973 - Oshawa ON
Tweet me @BigRaySays
Wilmington Assembly was a General Motors automobile factory in Wilmington, Delaware. The 3,200,000-square-foot (297,000 m2) factory opened in 1947, closing its assembly line in 2009. Its final product was the GM Kappa platform sports cars. Production of the Saturn L-Series halted on June 17, 2004. In the 1950s and 1960s. GM's Boxwood Road plant was designated as a B-O-P facility, manufacturing Buicks, Oldsmobiles, and Pontiacs.
As part of the 2009 bankruptcy and restructuring of General Motors,  Wilmington Assembly ceased automotive production on Tuesday, July 28, 2009. Its final product was a Pontiac Solstice convertible.
Fisker Automotive has chosen GM's former assembly plant in Wilmington, Del., to launch its Project NINA, a plan to build family-friendly plug-in hybrid sedans that cost less than $40,000 with a federal tax credit, according to the automaker. Vice President and former Delaware senator Joe Biden joined Fisker executives for the announcement at the plant.
Fisker says it will begin production on its vehicles by late 2012; Project NINA will eventually create or support 2,000 factory jobs as well as 3,000 vendor and supplier jobs. By 2014, it expects production to enter full swing, turning out 75,000-100,000 vehicles per year. It expects to export more than half of these vehicles, which would be the largest export percentage of any domestic automaker.
The automaker will spend $175 million to retool the GM plant with the funding coming from the $528.7 million Department of Energy loan awarded to Fisker in September. Fisker currently only offers its electric sports car, the Karma.
73SC wrote:Scarborough Van Plant
Scarborough Van Plant
cool picture ray
The plant began as an automotive components manufacturing plant in 1963 before being converted into a van assembly plant. The plant produced GM vans as well as GM and Chevrolet cube van cabs and chassis. In 1986 the one-millionth van was produced at the Scarborough Van Plant.
Around Thanksgiving of 1989, General Motors announced that they would be closing the van plant in Scarborough, and awarding the van contract to Flint Truck Assembly. The last van rolled off the Scarborough line on May 6, 1993. Production was then transferred to Flint Truck Assembly and the process of dismantling the plant began. After three years at Flint the van division moved to Wentzville Assembly in Missouri in July, 1996.
The Scarborough plant employed 2,800 people. Most of the employees were transferred to Oshawa Truck Assembly or Oshawa Car Assembly shortly after the closure of the Scarborough Plant.
Copywrited image of site as it is today, all rights reserved by Beverley A Roberstson.
Willow Run was a General Motors automobile factory near Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States. It is located at 2625 Tyler Rd.
Van Nuys Assembly was a General Motors automobile factory in Van Nuys, California. Opened as a Chevrolet plant in 1947, Van Nuys produced the Chevrolet Corvair, Chevrolet Nova, Chevrolet Camaro, and Pontiac Firebird. The plant was closed in 1992 when Camaro/Firebird production was moved to Saint Therese Assembly in Quebec.
The site was razed in 1998. A retail and industrial complex, known as The Plant, resulted on the 68-acre site, as well as Station 81 of the Los Angeles Fire Department. The retail portion totals 365,000 square feet and is home to 35 retail stores and restaurants. A 16-screen movie theatre honors the site history with an automotive theme décor. GM continues to operate a car-testing facility on 27-acres next to The Plant.
Sainte Therese Assembly was a General Motors Canada automobile factory, which opened in 1966. It was located in the Montreal suburb of Sainte-Thérèse, Quebec. It later was the site for production of the F-body Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird. The plant closed in 2002 and was demolished.
Located in Norwood, Ohio, the Norwood Assembly Plant built General Motors cars between the years of 1923 and 1987. When it first opened the plant employed 600 workers and was capable of producing 200 cars per day. At its peak in the early 1970s it employed nearly 9,000.
The first car rolled off the assembly line on August 13, 1923. Among the cars built at Norwood were the Chevrolet Bel Air, Biscayne, Impala, Nova, Caprice, Camaro, Pontiac Firebird, and the Buick Apollo. The plant grew to cover an area of approximately 50 acres (200,000 m2) and had 3,000,000 square feet (279,000 m2) of space under roof.
The facility had a number of labor disputes, including a 174-day long strike in 1972, at the time the longest strike in GM history. As a result of the strike, 1,100 partially completed cars were scrapped or otherwise disposed of because it was not economically feasible to update them to the more stringent 1973 vehicle standards. After the strike GM opted to move Nova production away from Norwood to protect the model from future labor problems.
While newer GM plants had a one-story design, the Norwood plant had a less efficient three-story design. Additionally, the plant could not expand outward as it was surrounded by an interstate highway to the north, railroad lines to the east and west, a business district on a State Route to the west and a residential neighborhood to the south.
Citing its obsolescence, expense, and high worker absentee rate, GM announced on November 6, 1986, that the Norwood Assembly Plant would be closed along with ten other GM facilities. The plant produced its last vehicle on August 26, 1987, a Chevrolet Camaro. That date came to be known in Norwood as Black Wednesday. At the time of its closing the plant employed approximately 4,200 workers. Most of the plant was demolished in 1989. The main factory building sat vacant for nearly 10 years. The City of Norwood, having relied on the carmaker for nearly 35 percent of its taxbase, faced economic catastrophe and possible bankruptcy. The City wished to re-develop the site due to its unique and attractive location - at the juncture of an Interstate Highway 562, U.S. Route 22 (Montgomery Road, Ohio State Round 3 and Ohio State Route 561 (Smith Road). Easily accessible from all directions, Norwood saw an opportunity to revitalize itself. Norwood approached GM about demolishing the plant. Initially the carmaker refused.
As its finances grew critical, Norwood threatened General Motors with a lawsuit. Apparently, Norwood had not been collecting taxes on earnings paid to workers on sick-leave or injury-leave since the factory opened in 1923. Only regular payroll taxes were collected. Norwood calculated uncollected taxes as being in the millions of dollars. The carmaker and City settled their dispute, with the site being demolished at the carmaker's expense. The property was turned over to the City for development in exchange for the City dropping its demand for back-taxes. The development of the GM Assembly site helped jump-start Norwood's economy. A series of "flex" businesses were constructed. Where once had stood a single blue-collar car factory, the property was transformed into a mixed-use combination of business - office, light industrial and retail, providing mix-use income to the City.
As of spring 2007 the only remnants of former GM buildings were two parking garages. Those were absorbed into a new office complex along Smith Road (State Rte. 561), with additions of an adult gym/workout center, day-care center, restaurants, banking center and several medium and small businesses. One small street, formerly leading into the GM plant from Montgomery Road (U.S. Route 22), was closed and developed into a mixed use complex named after a major tenant Matrixx Marketing and later Convergys Corporation complex. It has been home to those businesses as well as a bank, satellite television provider and medical consulting/MRI/diagnostic laboratory.
As of Fall, 2007, the third and last piece of usable land from the GM plant at the corner of Montgomery Road (U.S. Route 22) and Smith Road (State Rte 3) was developed with plans for a medical arts building.
The successful development of those former GM Assembly properties spurred interest by other developers to choose Norwood for commercial development. One mile away, two open-air shopping malls were built at the former LeBlond Machine Tool Company, located where Interstate 71 and Ohio State Rte 561 (Edwards Road) converge. Those properties were named Rookwood Pavilion and Rookwood Commons and have been very successful as well.
The plant constituted 35% of the City of Norwood's tax base, approximately $2 million annually. As a result many city services were reduced and eliminated, and property tax rates raised. The plant employed 430 Norwood residents at the time of its closing, with the remaining employees mostly living in and around the Cincinnati area. The City of Norwood quickly moved to rehabilitate the site, and by 1991 the Central Parke office project housed in excess of 1,000 workers using nearly 250,000 square feet (23,000 m2) of office space.
In 2007 there is approximately 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) of office and retail space in the area once occupied by the factory.
Norwood was a very old plant that was typical of the old standard model for Fisher Body/Chevrolet assembly facilities; the Fisher Body plant and the Chevrolet assembly plant were on the same piece of property, but were operated by two separate GM Divisions. Fisher Body built the body shell from the firewall back, and shipped it through a hole in their common wall to the Chevrolet plant, fully painted and trimmed, including the interior, minus the instrument panel, dash and floor-mounted components, and front carpets. Chevrolet then assembled all the rest of the trim, chassis, and final assembly components, including all the front end sheet metal, and shipped the finished cars to the dealers. Fisher Body had a huge Paint Shop for the body, and Chevrolet had their own separate Paint Shop for all the front end sheet metal. Norwood ran two shifts, and produced 57 cars per hour, or 912 per day, and produced only the Camaro until mid-April, 1969, when the Firebird (previously built at Lordstown) was added to their mix.
Oshawa Car Assembly is a major manufacturing facility in the city of Oshawa, Ontario, Canada building various automobiles for General Motors Canada. The factory is one of the largest auto plants in the world and has won a number of awards. The plant is part of the larger GM Autoplex, which includes Oshawa Truck Assembly.
The facility has produced vehicles since the 1950s.
In the mid-1980s, GM began a large transformation of the facility, naming the site "Autoplex." The changeover came in three steps, the first being conversion of the truck plant to GMT400 production in 1986. The next step was retooling Line 2 for the new W-body Regal, which began production in mid-1987. The final instalment was a long changeover of Line 1 for the Chevrolet Lumina, which went into production on January 8, 1989 as a 1990 model.
The following dates refers to the years that the particular model was produced at Oshawa facility.
Oshawa Truck Assembly was a General Motors Canada truck factory in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada that opened in 1965 and closed in 2009. The plant is part of the larger GM Autoplex, which includes Oshawa Car Assembly and a now-closed battery plant. The Autoplex is located next to major highways and rail lines, giving it easy access to parts and markets across North America.
The Oshawa Truck plant was manufacturing the 2008 Silverado, Sierra, Sierra Denali Edition, and Sierra Texas Edition. It has also produced Chevrolet/GMC C/K as well.
GM announced on June 3, 2008 that this plant would close permanently May 14, 2009, with no future plans for new products. The closure was due to high gasoline prices in much of the world, as well as a deep recession caused by the financial crisis. These dramatically decreased demand for fuel-inefficient light trucks and truck-based vehicles, especially in the crucial market of the United States. GM itself had been in a precarious financial situation for several years, which dramatically worsened as a result of the 2008 economic problems, eventually forcing it to seek government aid and potentially filing for bankruptcy.
Just three weeks prior to the announcement of the closure, General Motors and the Canadian Auto Workers union had reached a tentative agreement on a new collective bargaining contract on May 15, 2008, a full four months before the existing contract was due to expire. As part of the agreement, GM pledged to maintain production at the Oshawa truck plant and made other production commitments. On June 3, 2008, less than three weeks after ratification of the new contract, GM announced that, due to soaring gasoline prices and plummeting truck sales, it would close four additional truck and SUV plants, including the Oshawa truck plant. In response, the CAW organized a blockade of the GM of Canada headquarters in Oshawa. The blockade was ended by an Ontario Superior Court order after 12 days. Further discussions between GM and the CAW resulted in an agreement to compensate workers at the truck plant and additional product commitments for the Oshawa car assembly plant. As of May 15, 2009, the GM-CAW contract is currently being re-negotiated in order to receive loans from the Canadian and Ontario governments.
The factory was originally built to produce Samson tractors. These failed to find buyers, so GM switched it to producing Chevrolet automobiles in 1923. It has produced automobiles and pickup trucks over the years, but most recently built full-size SUVs.
Production at the factory was halted during the Great Depression for a short time and there was a famous sit-down strike in 1937. The Janesville Assembly also produced artillery during World War II.
When the United States entered World War II, production of vehicles other than those for the military halted, and auto plants turned to making war machines and material.
GMs Oldsmobile Division took over both of Janesvilles GM operations and started cranking out artillery shells: 16 million shells in three years. Women started working next to older and draft-exempt men. Their motto was: Keep Em Firing.
Three months after the war ended, it was back to business as usual: The UAW struck GM plants nationwide over working conditions and a raise to replace lost war overtime.
The same year, 1946, Gilman Engineering moved into a new building. Last week, Gilman, now a division of a German corporation, announced it would essentially leave Janesville.
In 1949, 2,650 GM employees made 150,000 cars and trucks here, a record. They earned $8.65 million..
In 1953, both Chevy and Fisher Body added second shifts in Janesville. Fisher Body provided the bodies that Chevy workers put on 144,000 cars and 33,850 trucks. Total employment was 3,700.
Employment and plant size in Janesville expanded through the 50s and 60s, although a recession in 1960-61 forced temporary layoffs here. National and local strikes stopped work temporarily, but they resulted in better wages and working conditions.
GMs 100 millionth vehicle
In April 1967, GM makes its 100 millionth vehicletotal for the corporationin Janesville. The blue two-door Chevrolet Caprice is enshrined at Flint, Mich., birthplace of GM and the first city Janesville competed with for jobs.
Janesville has made 6 million of the 100 million vehicles.
In 1969, Chevrolet and Fisher joined to form General Motors Assembly Division, sparking a strike to get the higher wages of the two divisions. Local 95 remains as Janesvilles sole UAW local.
Some 5,800 local GM employees made 198,300 cars and 71,704 pickup trucks in 1971.
The Janesville Assembly was until recently one of three plants producing the GMT900 trucks, such as the Chevrolet Suburban, and began building the next-generation short-wheelbase GMT900 trucks in January 2006. It began producing long wheelbase GMT900 trucks in March of that year and an overtime shift was added to meet demand.
From 1994 until 2009, the plant also produced medium-duty trucks for Isuzu under its partnership with GM.
Fuel prices, the related slow sales of SUVs, and the economy affected the Janesville plant. In April 2008, GM announced that the plant would cut back full-time production to a single shift. Combined with an ongoing employee buy-out program, layoffs totaled around 750 jobs in July 2008.
During GM's 2008 annual shareholder meeting on June 3, 2008, CEO Rick Wagoner announced that the Janesville assembly plant would close by 2010, along with three other GM factories, and could close sooner if the market dictated. The cutbacks announced, along with other changes, were expected to save the North American division $1 billion per year starting in 2010.
GM extended its annual summer shutdown an additional two weeks and planned another ten weeks of shutdown for the remainder of 2008 because of excess inventories of SUVs made at the plant.
In June 2008, a study by Steven Deller, a University of Wisconsin-Extension professor, indicated that the plant's closure could result in a ripple effect for the county. Based on a number of estimates and 2007 employment data, his worst case scenario was the loss of 9,000 jobs and nearly half a billion dollars of labor income in Rock County.
In October 2008, GM announced Janesville Assembly would be largely idled December 23, 2008 when production of SUVs would end. A skeleton crew continued to work at Janesville Assembly through June, 2009, completing the Janesville/Isuzu light truck contract.
Lansing Car Assembly was a General Motors automobile factory in Lansing, Michigan. It contained two elements, a 1901 automobile plant in downtown Lansing, and the 1920 Durant Motors factory on Lansing's Far Westside.
The Lansing plant was the longest-operating automobile factory in the United States when it closed on May 6, 2005, and one of General Motors last assembly plants where vehicle bodies were made at one plant, and then trucked to another plant to be finished. General Motors began demolition of the plant in the spring of 2006, and demolition was completed in 2007. A new plant at nearby Delta Township took its place when it began production in 2006.
The plant along Verlinden Avenue, on Lansing's border with Lansing Township, opened in 1920 as a factory for Durant Motor Works. After the demise of Durant, it remained closed until GM purchased it in 1935. It restarted production for GM's Fisher Body division, later becoming the Buick-Oldsmobile-Cadillac factory. Its final name was Lansing Car Assembly - Body Plant.
The last cars that Lansing Car Assembly produced were the Chevrolet Malibu/Chevrolet Classic, Oldsmobile Alero, and Pontiac Grand Am, which was the final vehicle built there. The plant built the very last Oldsmobile.
The main plant was located in downtown Lansing, Michigan located along Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard/Logan Street at the Grand River. It sat on the original site of the Michigan State Fairgrounds. The plant also included the unique Lansing GM Building 150 which sat in between Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard bridges.
It featured two separate assembly lines. Partially completed vehicles were transported by truck from the Body Plant to either the North Line "M" or the South Line "C" for completion. Upon completion, cars were driven off the assembly line and over northbound Martin Luther King, Jr. using a skybridge. After final inspection, the cars were placed in staging yards to either be shipped by truck or by rail.
The first factory on site opened in 1902 as part of Olds Motor Works, and became part of General Motors when they bought that company out in 1908. The complex was closed in 2005, finally being demolished in 2007. Harbour Consulting rated it as the sixth most efficient auto plant in North America in 2006.
The first vehicle, produced on 26 February 1948, was a Buick, with 23,388 more produced that first year. The factory was used by "BOP" (Buick, Oldsmobile, Pontiac) and produced 697,574 cars by 1959. In August of that year, it became part of Fisher Body, producing Chevrolet, Pontiac, and Oldsmobile cars.
The factory was re-purposed again in May, 1968, changing from separate Fisher Body and Chevrolet Division operations to a combined operation under the new GM Assembly Division, to produce the Chevrolet Chevelle and Pontiac Le Mans. The Buick Skylark and Oldsmobile Cutlass were added in 1970, and the Pontiac GTO was added the next year. In 1981, the Chevrolet Celebrity and Pontiac 6000 were produced, with the Oldsmobile Cutlass Ciera added for the 1983 model year.
The Framingham location was the center of several contentious tug-of-wars between Governor Michael Dukakis and local politician Anthony M. Colonna. After the town refused to sell General Motors a 35-acre town owned piece of property GM desired for the construction of a new paint and plastics facility, Dukakis used the state's power of eminent domain to take the property from the town and sell it to GM so the company could construct the $224 million facility. Colona, head of the town department public works and a powerful local politician, had desired a new, unified DPW facility to constructed on the site. After the taking, state officials and executives at GM claimed that Colonna used his political influence in the community to delay the company's expansion of the facility and drum up support against the company.
When the facility was closed, GM stated that it was due primarily to a slowdown in the economy as well as the relatively small size of the facility. However, GM spoke person Mark Leddy stated that local officials in Framingham were also partially to blame, declaring "You look at your labor climate, your relationship with the community and the quality of product being built at the plant" when explaining why the company chose to shutter the unit.
The plant was idled on October 4, 1982, with a single shift recalled on March 14, 1983. The second shift started again on December 12, 1983. The factory was closed permanently on August 1, 1989.
Framingham Assembly was located just South of downtown Framingham at Loring Drive and Western Avenue. The address of the ADESA auction site is 63 Western Ave.
Arlington Assembly is a General Motors automobile factory in Arlington, Texas. The plant has operated for more than 50 years, and today manufactures large SUVs based on GM's GMT900 platform:
Past models: GM A platform (RWD), GM G platform, and GM B platform
The Arlington plant was opened in 1954 to assemble both automobiles and aircraft, but has focused on the former use for most of its history. The factory was the site of assembly for many large GM cars, including the 1980s Chevrolet Monte Carlo, 1990s Chevrolet Impala, and late-model Chevrolet Silverado pickup trucks. The plant occupies 250 acres (1,000,000 square meters).
Arlington Assembly was the last GM B-body manufacturing facility (having gained the work from the closed Ypsilanti, Michigan facility when GM decided to consolidate production) prior to GM ending rear-wheel drive production and converting the plant to SUV production.
GMT900 production began on December 1, 2005, six weeks ahead of schedule.
Baltimore Assembly (properly named Broening Highway General Motors Plant) was a General Motors factory in Baltimore, Maryland. The plant opened in 1935 to produce Chevrolets and closed on May 13, 2005. It was a two-level plant located near the harbor and railroad lines in Baltimore.
Initially, Lakewood was referred to as 'Atlanta' and coded as '8' on vehicle VIN plates, changing to 'A' when GM reshuffled their codes for 1953. For 1972, code 'A' Atlanta was now referred to as the Lakewood plant.
Lakewood assembled Chevrolets, Pontiacs, Oldsmobiles and Buicks at various points in their history, and also began assembling Chevrolet and GMC trucks from 1929 through at least 1986. The 1990 model year Chevrolet Caprice B-Body model line was the last vehicle produced at Lakewood, the plant closing its doors on August 6. At the time of its demolition some years later, Lakewood was a 2,600,000-square-foot (242,000 m2) facility.